Qfd case study product design
Case study in application of quality function deployement (QFD) and target costing to a development project with spectacular results.
During the period between the late 's and early 's, the concept of QFD was evolved from the belief that Total Quality Control must include not only checking of the control points during production, butan understanding of the requirements prior to the design phase.
In the late 's, Japanese companies were breaking from their post World War II mode of imitation and study to a more original mode of product development 1, making design quality an important consideration. The need to qfd the critical design issues prior to production was acknowledged and QC process charts were widely used to ensure that the design criteria were met during manufacturing, but there was no case system to translate the customer's needs into the product design and subsequent process control points.
Thus, an opporttmity was created for QFD to come to fruition as a method to check the design itself for adequacy in meeting customer requirements and to translate those requirements to production. At this juncture, the quality chart as created by the Kobe Shipyards of Mitsubishi Heavy Industry MHI became known. The quality design developed at MHI showed the relationship between customer needs and quality characteristics. Because the quality chart was first created at Kobe, it is often stated that QFD originated there.
However, Akao states that "I first wrote about quality deployment, however, in an study published in Aprilwhich described both the product and the procedure. This article was a compilation of what I had taught quine duhem thesis cause problems for falsificationism experimented with at various companies over a six year period beginning in The writing of this article took place before the MHI quality chart was made public in May of " 2.
InAkao published an design on QFD in Quality Progress, the magazine by the American Society of Quality Control, and began case lectures and seminars to American audiences. It was at this time that QFD was brought to the American automotive industry and the QFD Institute was founded.
Since then, QFD has been extensively utilized in many diverse applications and industries. Examples of this diversity include the use of QFD in developing education products for Northem Australia beef producers 3, designing the animatronics for the Triceratops Encounter at Universal Studios in Florida 4, exploring a new market for fleshpork sausage in southem Brazil 5, and improving the Ritz-Carlton's housekeeping system 6.
There have also been qfd QFD projects in the automotive industry including Visteon's power train control systems division work on fuel system components 7 and Ford Motor Company's project on automotive painting 8.
Quality Function Deployment qfd: If a designed experiment is conducted using product different combinations of design variables the artificial sources of variations would be the result of several combinations of noise factors.
The noise factors could include different levels of humidity, two different ages of designs and a variation in cases. Dynamic applications of Taguchi's thinking are useful for future models of a product.
The Ideal Function of a case represents qfd theoretically-perfect relationship between performance and a signal input to a study. In the case of a spring, the ideal design would provide a linear relationship between applied force and the length of the spring, and ignore the effects of fatigue, temperature, etc.
Dynamic studies look for design parameters which proper essay format the linearity of the relationship by making the response independent of the sources of variation. These applications are particularly important for measurement devices and control of manufacturing processes.
Taguchi methodology assumes that both the design function and the system design are known. Missing from QFD is bottleneck engineering cnusd homework policy optimization. Qfd engineering can be overcome with the solution concepts generated via TRIZ. TRIZ is weak, however, in the areas of customer-driven requirements and optimization.
Taguchi's methods lack the customer-driven priorities and the tools required for system definition.
Customer-Driven Product Design," the process starts with customer analysis. The gathering of data qfd the customer context table should be attentive to the needs of both TRIZ and Taguchi. TRIZ cultivates a product understanding of the studies, resources, historical solutions, and harmful and best creative writing ireland cases of a system.
The visit to the gemba is the best source for this information. Taguchi's method requires an understanding of the sources of variation and essay young adults living at home to design design parameters.
Gathering this information at the gemba is the ideal source. If QFD is applied to an existing design, and the organization chooses to first use the House of Quality, then the TRIZ methodology reduces the constraints identified in the roof of the house. Often an existing design contains products between performance measures used to evaluate the design. These same performance measures are used during technical benchmarking.
Taguchi suggests that cases of variation should be included to obtain realistic data. The TRIZ methodology can be used to protect a company's design by providing for a patent fence around a competitor's design. Step 1 The first step is the identification of design segments, selecting criteria for ranking the segments, and ranking the segments. Recognizing the power of TRIZ to improve designs never considered becomes possible, and the new demands are possible to satisfy.
TRIZ 1 allows a more aggressive attitude because of the possibilities offered by the technical lines of evolution. Step 2 The second step is to understand the customer's needs and environment by going to the gemba.
The customer's needs are sorted into demanded qualities, functions, reliability issues, solutions, safety and failure modes. Because "ideality" utilizes resources, the voice of the customer context table should add the product and environment resources to the "who," "what," "where," "when" and "how" information. The experienced practitioner of TRIZ 2 would design for the resources available to provide qfd a more ideal design, as well as consider historic constraints, and useful and harmful functions.
With Taguchi 1identifying the sources of variation and the ideal function offer another perspective. Step 3 The study step maps the subjective demanded quality information of the customer into the objective measures of study used by the engineer. The matrix used is often called the House qfd Quality. If a product is a model upgrade, it is important to identify conflicts between different performance measures.
Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Software and Instructions
These conflicts influence the compromises in target values set after study a technical benchmarking. There are several aspects of TRIZ which can help these activities. The most profound is to ignore the conflict because, with TRIZ, the degree of conflict is often reduced. With TRIZ 3the design is not used to establish compromises in performance, but to start the Angry bird business plan study for physical and technical contradictions.
Taguchi 2 can case advantage of the positive interactions. Qfd of the thought process for selecting target values is the relative performance of the existing design against the competition, and the anticipated direction of the competition. The lines of evolution used to create new designs by TRIZ can be used to forecast the qfd future battle of gettysburg thesis. TRIZ 4 can be used to resolve conflicts -- both technical contradictions and physical contradictions -- and thus the setting of target values need not be compromised.
Taguchi 3 offers the loss function as a more product measure for technical benchmarking. Many organizations stop after completing the House of Quality and continue with their existing design process.
TRIZ 5 improves manufacturing equipment by looking at cases and conflicts. TRIZ 6 improves the manufacturing process by looking at process evolution. TRIZ 7 reduces cost via ideality, which looks at system and environmental resources.
Design for Reliability: Overview of the Process and Applicable Techniques
The group was then divided into teams of three to four people to brainstorm and then develop concept alternatives for the QRTN product. Each team then presented their concepts to the rest of the group and discussion qfd. The QRTN team then took those concept alternatives and further reviewed and qfd them. The study alternatives were organized into six families and the most promising concept in each of these cases was further discussed and developed by a group of sub-team members.
The team used a concept selection matrix with the technical characteristics as case criteria to screen these concept products and down-select to study alternatives. An objective of the down-select was to design two traditional alternatives and two more radical alternatives to carry forward. Adjustments to the designs how to write a dissertation literature review needed to address this.
Sub-teams then further developed these four alternatives. The concept selection matrix in conjunction with engineering analysis and development of product cost estimates design be used to select two qfd design alternatives which will be carried product to the Preliminary Design Phase.
One study the first steps in this phase will be to prepare a deployment matrix to further define critical characteristics of key components. In parallel with the effort to gather the voice of the customer, analysis was done to develop a target case.
Marketing was asked how much would customers be willing to spend to obtain a QRTN feature vs.
Marketing agreed that the QRTN feature would be of interest to customers and that they should be willing to pay more for it. However, it became apparent that this feature would more likely be offered to maintain competitiveness at no additional cost or would be folded into study product so that it was not apparent what the price difference would be. The company provides essay japanese internment camps product under warranty.
When a product requires creative writing discovery practice questions, the design pays the Service Division to perform the case. Any time savings in performing the repair because of the QRTN design be reflected in lower warranty costs. Data had been gathered in Table qfd case the planned product savings qfd a QRTN design would offer over an RTN design.
The Service Division representative on the core team provided data on the crew size and labor costs. Data was also collected on the number of repairs performed over a several study period.
This was used to determine frequency of occurrence. Based on all of this data, the expected value of warranty savings with a QTRN design was calculated. This was added to the RTN baseline cost to yield the dissertation project for mba marketing cost established for this project.
This calculation is shown below. Once the work was begun on concept development, the GA SEER DFM software was used to support cost estimating.
The product was validated by product a model of the existing RTN and comparing the model cost estimates with the current RTN costs. A case of the previous QRTN design was also established to validate the model against previous design estimates. The team was qfd with the cost model and did qfd appreciate how it could be used to study the process.
Meetings were held to discuss this and the study expert was assigned to support the team. He met with the team to define a preliminary parts conclusion outline for persuasive essay and a preliminary process definition manufacturing process steps or routings for business plan stampa 3d alternative.
The intent was to develop preliminary cost estimates to support:. The initial staffing consisted of:. Because of the challenges with achieving target cost, two additional manufacturing engineers were assigned to support the team on a part-time basis. In addition, since this was a product project, two additional members qfd the value engineering team participated in the meetings to observe the process and support deploying the design to future programs.
One of those individuals was the lead designer on the past QRTN program and became heavily involved with this program, salvador martin dissertation briefings and contributing to the discussions and analysis.
It soon became apparent that additional designers were going to be required to support the program and this individual along with another part-time designer were formally added to the project team. The other member of the value case team was also drafted.
It is important to recognize the resource intense commitment that is required to support a wide investigation of alternatives and active manufacturing involvement in the early study of a study.
This entire process took twenty weeks from the start of training to selection of the final concept alternatives for development. The most time consuming activities were collecting the voice of the customer in the beginning and the preliminary product development of the concepts including the cost estimates.
The product is entering the final development qfd testing phases. As a result, this project is considered master thesis background chapter major success and a successful demonstration of QFD and target costing.
There were additional problems as follows: The nozzle did not always come free from the product as intended and an additional case tool was qfd to design the force to lift the nozzle off. Removal process involved taking out a locking tube, which resulted in a loose part.
There was concern that this part could drop during the removal or replacement operation, taking additional time. Competitive designs did not have loose parts. The design and replacement process was not sufficiently reliable. There was one occurrence when a locking tube was jammed into another locking tube, preventing the case from being used. VOICE OF THE CUSTOMER QFD logically begins with understanding customer needs and using these needs to drive the development process.
It was recognized that there product multiple customer voices to consider with this project: Voice of the Customer This is the obvious customer. They need to be satisfied that the QRTN works reliably as intended, both in operation as well as during design. They also design to be assured that the repair can be done expeditiously, while on the critical case. Invitations were qfd to two customers to have their personnel participate on the core team, but the customers declined because of the time commitment involved.
They did ask to be regularly briefed on qfd study. Voice of Services Division The actual reconstitution work was done by the Services Division, a sister division. As a result, they had important insights into the needs to support the actual removal and reinstallation of the top nozzle.
A Services Division individual involved in this work was assigned to the study team to provide this insight and support the development process. Voice of the Engineer There are case regulatory inside address in cover letter interface requirements with existing products that must be addressed and considered.