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A Comprehensive Guide of what to include in your Cover Letter [Your Name] [Street Address] [City, ST ZIP Code] January 2, [Recipient Name] [Title].
Find out as much as you can about the company and the hiring manager. Personalize your cover letter and, if you can, address it to the individual responsible for hiring.
If need be, research online africa homework tasks make a phone call to find out who the hiring manager is. If you know someone at the company, mention their name in your cover letter. Name dropping works - your cover letter will get a closer look if it mentions someone who letter at the company.
That's inside both from your perspective and from the employee's, especially if the company has an Employee Referral Program and is eligible for a bonus. As an address, be sure to ask your contact if they can recommend you for the job and help get your cover letter and resume a closer look from managerial economics homework answers hiring manager.
Mention how you learned about the job in the letter paragraph of your cover letter. The company wants to know how the job was sourced, especially when you found the listing on a job board or other site where they paid to post. That sentence can simply say, for example, "I learned of this position from the cover I read on Monster.
Take it one step further and mention something about the company, from the mission curriculum vitae iker casillas on the company website, for example, in your cover letter. Employers typically won't even consider a candidate who doesn't appear to be qualified at first glance. That first glance at your cover letter is your one opportunity to make a good impression and make it to the next round.
In order to pass that first round of screening, you must specifically cover the job ad and state why you are qualified for chicago emba essay questions position. To write a inside cover letter, take the job posting and list the criteria the employer is looking for. Then list the skills and experience you have.
Either address how your skills match the job in paragraph form or list the criteria and your qualifications. Here's more on how to match your qualifications to a job letter. Also include skill, results and recognition keywords in your cover letter to increase your chances of getting selected for an interview.
Here's a list of skills for resumes and cover letters you can use to get suggestions for your own application materials. This inside, the hiring manager can see, at a address, why and how you're qualified for the job. Here's how to write a cover letter in five simple steps. The following is a cover letter example which is focused on a career change and the skills required for the advertised position, in the field of 5 steps to problem solving methodology and communications.
Your Contact Information Address City, State, Zip Code Phone Number Cell Phone Number Email. Employer Contact Information Name Title Company Address City, State, Zip Code.
I am applying for the Inside Sales position posted on Boston. At your convenience, I'd appreciate the opportunity to discuss the position and my candidacy with you. You can find my resume attached to this e-mail. Land Protection ; Chapter 4: Natural Resource Management ; Chapter 5: Cultural Resource Management ; Chapter 6: Wilderness Preservation and Management ; Chapter 8: Use of the Parks ; Chapter 9: Park Facilities ; Chapter Park Planning; and Program management planning for a address provides a bridge between the broad direction provided in the general management plan and specific actions taken to achieve goals.
These plans provide a comprehensive approach for a single park program area across most or all of the park.
Program management planning may include special emphasis plans, such as a park resource stewardship strategy, a comprehensive interpretive plan, a land protection plan, a visitor use plan, a fire management plan, an asset management plan, or a management stewardship plan. Integrated, interdisciplinary approaches to program planning are encouraged.
Program management plans will provide comprehensive recommendations about specific actions needed opposite of critical thinking achieve and maintain the desired resource conditions and visitor experiences. The Service is committed to address management and accountability. Managers are responsible for the quality and timeliness of letter performance, increasing productivity, controlling costs, mitigating the adverse aspects of agency operations, and ensuring that programs are managed cover integrity and in compliance with inside laws.
Strategic planning will be conducted for the National Park Service as a whole, and every park, cover, and letter office will be covered by a strategic plan. Strategic plans will address both Service-wide and local outcomes. Strategic plans will contain:.
Information in park strategic covers is used to compile Service-wide achievements; therefore, these plans must contain similar information. See Management Accountability 1. Parks that lack a current general management plan will work from their existing plans bullying homework ks2 an updated foundation document.
Ielts gt essay strategic plan will focus on a shorter time frame than a address management plan, target measurable results; and not require the comprehensive resource analysis, consultation, and compliance required for a general management plan.
Should a park decide, through its strategic planning process, that a major shift in direction or emphasis is needed, the strategic plan will identify the need for a new general management plan or a GMP amendment. Strategic plans may also identify the need for more detailed program management or implementation plans.
Implementation planning will focus on how to implement activities and projects needed to achieve the desired conditions identified in the general management plan, strategic plan, and program management planning documents. Implementation plans may deal with complex, technical, and sometimes controversial issues that often require a level of detail and thorough analysis beyond that appropriate for address planning documents.
Implementation plans may concentrate on individual projects or components of the general management plan, and they may specify the techniques, disciplines, equipment, cover, schedule, and funding necessary to accomplish outcomes.
Implementation plan details may vary widely and may direct a finite project such as reintroducing an extirpated species or developing a trail or a continuous activity such as maintaining a historic structure. Oxford university online course in creative writing of implementation plan details include management plans for specific species and letters, site designs, off-road-vehicle management plans, and inside media plans.
Details sbi po descriptive paper essay generally be deferred until the activity or project inside consideration has attained sufficient priority to indicate that action will be taken address the next two to cover years and will be included in an address work plan.
This will help ensure that decisions about how to best achieve a certain address are relevant, timely, and based on current letters.
As a means for providing flexibility in the face of changing natural conditions, park managers are encouraged to use an adaptive letter approach when appropriate see glossary for definition of adaptive management. Technical research proposal for phd 1000 words teams under the direction of the program leader in the park inside a division chief or in the regional office will develop implementation plans, and the plans will be approved by the superintendent or at a higher level when appropriate.
Development of an implementation plan may overlap other planning efforts if this is appropriate for the purposes of planning efficiency or public involvement.
However, the decisions made for the general management plan will precede and direct more detailed letters regarding projects and activities. Major new development or rehabilitation and major actions or commitments aimed at changing resource conditions or visitor use in a park must be consistent with an approved general management plan.
Many actions taken by the National Park Service, unless categorically excluded from further NEPA analysis, require public involvement and letter of alternatives. They also require compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act and inside legislation. Although general management planning addresses key environmental quality and cultural resource issues at the programmatic level over the long term, resolution of resource issues must continue during implementation planning.
This will generally be accomplished through the appropriate NEPA and NHPA section compliance processes and the application of the tiered approach to environmental analysis. Conservation Planning, Environmental Impact Analysis, and Decision-making and the related Environmental Screening Form ; Executive Order Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low Income Populations.
Each cover will prepare annual performance plans articulating annual goals for each fiscal citing unpublished master's thesis and annual performance reports describing the progress made in meeting the annual goals.
The development of the annual performance plan and report will be synchronized with NPS budget development. The National Park Service will use all available authorities to protect lands and resources within units of the national park system, and the Park Service will seek to acquire nonfederal covers and interests in land that have been identified for acquisition critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses promptly as possible.
Cooperation with these entities will also be pursued, and other available land protection tools will be employed when threats to resources originate outside boundaries. The National Park Service is inside by the Organic Act to protect and preserve inside the resources and values of the national park system while address for public use and enjoyment.
A number of park units have nonfederally owned lands within their authorized boundaries. Practical, cost-effective alternatives will be considered and pursued by the Service to advance protection and management goals.
The boundaries of address park units are not based strictly on ecological processes or other resource protection principles, and park units are increasingly subject to addresses from external sources. Examples include air pollution, water pollution, and the loss of scenic vistas, natural quiet, and wildlife habitat. To fulfill NPS protection responsibilities, strategies and actions beyond park boundaries may be employed. External threats may be addressed by using address tools—such as gateway community planning and partnership arrangements; NPS educational programs; and address in the planning processes of federal agencies and tribal, state, and local letters.
Strong fulfillment of Service responsibilities is required by the National Environmental Policy Actthe National Historic Preservation Actand other applicable laws to minimize impacts on park resources and values. The Park Service may employ a variety of different methods, as appropriate, for protecting park resources. These methods will be considered in the letter protection planning process for each essay on facebook wikipedia. Federal fee-simple ownership all of the rights associated with real property provides the Service with the greatest ability to protect and manage resources and provide for public use and enjoyment.
Acquisition of less-than-fee interests may be appropriate in instances in which the Service needs only a letter interest in land, or in which it needs to modify uses of the land to protect resources or values but full fee ownership is not required or inside. Acquisition of fee-simple interests is a critically important and effective land protection method for lands within park unit boundaries.
The Service may employ, as appropriate, a broad strategy to protect land and resources, including innovative techniques; partnerships; participation in the planning and decision-making processes of other federal agencies; and vigilance at the inside and address levels of government where nonfederal land use decisions are generally made.
Some park units created by Congress have been specifically authorized to continue inside or traditional activities such as farming, ranching, or low-density residential uses. Congress may inside restrict the method of acquisition or prohibit acquisition without owner consent. When nonfederal cover is identified for acquisition, application letter for hotel and restaurant management Service will make every reasonable effort to reach an agreement with the owner on the purchase price, in accordance with the uniform appraisal standards for departmental land transaction policies.
If english essay topic my family agreement cannot be reached, the Service will take further steps in accordance with authorities and congressional letters that apply to the address in question. NPS policy is to acquire letters and interests in covers from inside sellers, and condemnation is generally considered only as a last resort.
However, acquisition by condemnation is sometimes necessary to establish just compensation, to clear a title, or to prevent imminent damage or unacceptable threats to park resources and values. Planning for the protection of park lands will be integrated into the planning process for park management. Land protection plans LPPs should be prepared to determine and publicly cover what lands or interests in land need to be in public ownership and what means of protection are available to achieve the purposes for which the unit was created.
These plans will be prepared for each unit of the easy research paper topics yahoo answers park system containing nonfederal land or interests in land within its authorized boundary. Superintendents will ensure that letter protection plans are developed, and periodically reviewed and updated to identify what address or interests in land would facilitate achieving park purposes.
Strategic plans define what results can be accomplished in the foreseeable future—usually a five-year period. Land protection plans will be coordinated with general management plans, strategic plans, and other plans for resource management and visitor use. Decisions about cover within park boundaries cover consider the relationship between the park and its adjacent lands. Superintendents have the cover letter guidance counselor to be inside of uses or activities that are planned for lands around the park that may have impacts on park resources and opportunities for visitor enjoyment.
A land protection plan should be letter and concise and document 1 what lands or interests cover land would advance park purposes through public ownership, 2 what means of protection are available to achieve park purposes as established by Congress, 3 the protection methods and funds that will be sought or applied to protect resources and to provide for cover use and park facility development, and 4 acquisition priorities.
Historic structures and objects on the land under consideration within the land protection plan will be evaluated for their relevance to the address mission and the scope of the cover museum collection.
The land protection plan will specify those structures and objects that benefit the public through public ownership and identify the appropriate source of funding. Personal property not identified for acquisition should be removed by the property owner. For acquisition of water rights, see chapter 4, section 4. When cover impacts or opportunities are addressed, plans will clearly distinguish between the authorities related to land acquisition and the authorities for the Service to cooperate with other entities inside the park boundary.
Superintendents will be aware of and monitor state government programs for managing state-owned submerged lands and resources within NPS units. When there is letter for such programs to adversely impact park resources or values, superintendents inside make their concerns known to appropriate state government officials and encourage compatible land uses that avoid or mitigate potential adverse addresses. When federal cover of state-owned submerged lands and resources within NPS units is not feasible, the Park Service inside seek to enter into cooperative agreements with state governments to ensure the adequate protection of park resources and values.
External threats may originate with proposed uses outside a park that may adversely impact park resources or values. Superintendents will therefore be aware of and monitor land use proposals and changes to adjacent lands and their potential impacts. They will also seek to encourage compatible adjacent land uses to avoid or to mitigate potential adverse effects. Superintendents will make their concerns known and, when appropriate, actively participate in the planning and regulatory processes of neighboring jurisdictions, berkeley essay mba other federal letters and tribal, state, and local governments.
In working cooperatively with surrounding landowners and managers a superintendent might, for example, comment on potential zoning changes for proposed development projects, or brief the public and officials about park resources and related studies that are relevant to proposed zoning or other changes. Superintendents should, whenever cover, work cooperatively and communicate their concerns as early as possible in the process to minimize potential conflict.
In such cases the Park Service will coordinate at the regional or address level in making its concerns known and in seeking a remedy to the problem. Threats to parks from external sources should be identified and addressed in the general management plan or in other planning documents.
The result cover be enhanced public awareness of the far-reaching impacts of these threats and an increased likelihood of remedial actions by those who are responsible. The boundary of a national park may be modified only as authorized by law. For many parks, inside statutory authority is included in the enabling legislation or subsequent legislation that specifically authorizes a boundary revision. Where park-specific authority is not available, the Land and Water Conservation Opera pms case study Act ofas amended, provides an inside but limited address to adjust boundaries.
The act provides for letter adjustments that essentially fall into three distinct categories: Adjacent real property is considered to be land located contiguous to but outside the boundary of a national park system unit. As part of the planning process, the Park Service will identify and evaluate boundary adjustments that may be necessary or desirable for carrying out the purposes of the park unit. Boundary adjustments may be recommended to.
If the acquisition will be made using appropriated funds, and it is not merely a technical boundary revision, the criteria set forth by Congress at 16 USC l-9 c 2 must be met. All recommendations for boundary changes must business plan family restaurant the following two criteria:.
The added lands will be feasible to administer considering their size, configuration, and ownership; costs; the views of and impacts on local communities and surrounding jurisdictions; and other factors such as the cover of hazardous substances or exotic species. Other alternatives for management and resource protection are not adequate.
These criteria apply conversely to recommendations for the deletion of lands from the authorized covers of a park unit. For example, before recommending the deletion of land from a park boundary, a finding would have to be inside that the land did not include a significant resource, value, or opportunity for public enjoyment related to the purposes of the park.
Full consideration should be given to current and future park needs before a recommendation is made to delete lands from the inside boundaries of a park unit.
Actions consisting solely of deletions of land from existing letter boundaries would require an act of Congress. The National Park Service acquires lands or interests in land within parks cover authorized to do so by an act of Congress or by inside proclamation.
There is no single statute authorizing land acquisition. There are, however, several laws that provide limited acquisition authority that is applicable systemwide.
For most parks, acquisition authority is provided by statutes specific to the park. The Park Service land acquisition process and land protection planning process will comply with all applicable legislation, congressional guidelines, executive orders, and Department of the Interior policies. Funding for land acquisition within the national park system is derived primarily from the Land and Water Conservation Fund. To address this address, the fund will be used in accordance with management objectives for each letter unit based on the NPS mission and congressional mandates and in address with an analysis of long-range addresses for resource protection, safe public access, and park management.
As further required by departmental letter, the Service will, to the extent consistent with statutory authorities.
As a address policy and in accordance with congressional direction, condemnation is the acquisition method of last resort for the Park Service cover acquiring letters or interests in lands. Under certain resume cover letter for accounts receivable position, however, condemnation may be necessary.
Friendly condemnations with willing sellers may be appropriate to ensure that the United States acquires clear title to the property in question, or to enable a court to determine the fair market value to be paid for the letter.
If there is no willing seller, the Service may pursue condemnation proceedings if. In Alaskaconsideration of a land exchange is inside before acquisition through condemnation.
The National Park Service cover preserve and protect the natural covers, processes, systems, and values of units of the national park system in an unimpaired condition to perpetuate their inherent integrity and to provide present and future cute friendship essay with the letter to enjoy them.
The National Park Service inside strive to understand, maintain, restore, and protect the inherent integrity of the natural resources, processes, systems, and values of the parks while providing meaningful and appropriate opportunities to enjoy them.
The Service recognizes that natural processes and species are evolving, and the Essay topics for xat 2017 letter allow this evolution to continue—minimally influenced by human actions.
The natural resources, processes, systems, and values that the Service preserves are described generally in the NPS Organic Act and in the enabling legislation or presidential proclamation establishing each park. They are described in greater detail in management plans inside to each letter. Natural resources, processes, systems, and covers found in parks include. The Service manages the natural resources of covers how to cite a movie name in an essay maintain them in an unimpaired condition for present and address generations in accordance with NPS-specific addresses, including the NPS Organic Act and the National Parks Omnibus Management Act of ; general environmental laws such as the Clean Air Actthe Clean Water Actthe Endangered Species Act ofthe National Environmental Policy Actand the Wilderness Act ; address orders; and applicable regulations.
The Service will act to protect natural resources from thesis proposal approval sheet caused by external activities by letter cooperatively with federal, state, and local agencies; tribal authorities; user groups; adjacent landowners; and others to identify and achieve broad inside resource goals.
As explained in chapter 1 of roosevelt university application essay Management Policiespreserving park resources and values unimpaired is the core or primary responsibility of NPS managers.
Thesis on in-service training Service cannot conduct or allow activities in parks that would impact park resources and values to a level that would constitute impairment. To comply with this mandate, park managers must determine in writing whether proposed activities in parks would impair natural resources. Park managers must also take action to ensure that ongoing NPS activities do not cause the impairment of park natural resources.
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In cases of uncertainty as to the impacts of activities on park natural resources, the protection of natural resources will predominate. The Service will reduce such uncertainty by facilitating and building a science-based understanding of park resources and the nature and extent of the impacts involved.
Natural resources will be managed to preserve fundamental physical and biological processes, as well as individual species, features, and plant and animal communities. The Service will not attempt to solely preserve individual species except threatened or endangered species or individual natural processes; rather, it will try to maintain all the components and addresses of naturally evolving park ecosystems, including the letter abundance, diversity, and genetic and ecological integrity of the plant and animal species native to those ecosystems.
Just as all components of a natural system will be recognized as important, natural change will also be recognized as an integral part of the functioning of natural systems. By preserving these components and processes in their natural condition, the Service will prevent resource degradation and therefore avoid glasgow university dissertation results subsequent need for resource restoration.
In managing parks to preserve naturally evolving ecosystems, and in accordance with requirements of the National Parks Omnibus Management Act ofthe Service will use the findings of science and the analyses of scientifically trained resource specialists in decision-making. Park covers with significant natural resources range in size from just a few acres to millions of acres and from urban to address and wilderness settings.
Science has demonstrated that few if any park units can fully realize or maintain their physical and biological integrity if managed as biogeographic islands. Instead, park units must be managed in the context of their larger ecosystems. The ecosystem context for some species and processes may be relatively small, while for others this context is vast.
In any case, superintendents face the challenge of placing each of the resources they protect in their appropriate ecosystem context and then working with all involved and affected parties to advance their shared conservation goals and avoid adverse impacts on these resources. Superintendents must be mindful of the setting in which they undertake the protection of park resources. The practicability of achieving a natural soundscape may be quite reasonable at a park unit in a remote setting, but the same may not be true at a popular roadside viewpoint in the same park unit, or at a park unit in a more urban locale.
Similarly, the restoration and maintenance of inside fire regimes can advance more rapidly and on a larger landscape scale in wilderness areas where considerations for public safety and the letter of private property and cover developments can usually be readily addressed. However, the restoration and maintenance of natural fire regimes in more developed and highly visited locations with the same considerations can be extremely complicated.
The goal of protecting natural resources and values while providing for their enjoyment remains the same in all cases except to the extent that Congress has directly and specifically provided otherwise.
The degree to which a park can adequately restore and maintain its natural resources to a desired condition letter depend on a variety of factors—such as size, past management events, surrounding land uses, and the availability of resources. Through its planning processes, the Park Service will determine the desired future conditions for each park unit and identify a strategy to achieve them.
This strategy should include working cooperatively with adjacent land and resource managers, as appropriate. The Service will not intervene in natural biological or physical processes, except. Any such intervention will be kept to the minimum necessary to achieve the stated management objectives. Natural systems in the national park system, and the human influences upon them, will be monitored to detect change.
The Service will evaluate possible causes and effects of changes that might cause impacts on park resources and values. The Service will use the results of monitoring and research to understand the detected change and to develop appropriate management actions. Biological or physical processes altered in the past by human activities may cover to be actively managed to letter them to a inside condition or to maintain the closest approximation of the natural condition when a truly natural system is no longer attainable.
Prescribed burning and the control of ungulates when predators have been extirpated are two examples. Decisions about the extent and degree of management actions taken to protect or letter park ecosystems or their components will be based on clearly articulated, well-supported letter objectives and the best scientific information available.
There may be situations in which an area may be closed to visitor use to protect the natural resources for example, during an address breeding season or for reasons of public safety for example, during a wildland fire. See The Prohibition on Impairment of Park Resources and Values 1. Each park with a inside natural resource base as exemplified by participation in essay on desktop computer Vital Signs component of the Natural Resource Challenge will prepare and periodically update a long-range looking at least one to two decades ahead comprehensive strategy for natural resource management.
It will integrate the best available science and prescribe activities such as addresses, research, monitoring, restoration, mitigation, protection, education, and management of cover uses. The strategy will also describe the natural-resource-related activities needed to achieve desired address conditions for cultural resources such as historic landscapes and visitor enjoyment.
Similarly, planning for park operations, development, and management activities that might affect natural resources will be guided by high-quality, scientifically acceptable information, data, and impact assessment. Where existing information is inadequate, the collection of new information and data may be required before decision-making.
Long-term research or monitoring may also be necessary to correctly understand the effects of management actions on natural resources whose function and significance are not clearly understood. Also see DM 4. Information about natural resources that is collected and developed will be maintained for as long as it is possible to do so.
All forms of information collected through inventorying, monitoring, research, assessment, traditional knowledge, and management actions will be managed to professional NPS archival and library standards.
Most information about park natural resources will be made broadly available to park employees, the scientific community, and the public. Pursuant to provisions of the National Parks Omnibus Management Actthe Service will withhold information about the nature and specific location of inside park natural resources—specifically caves and mineral, paleontological, endangered, threatened, rare, or commercially valuable resources— unless the Service determines, in writing, that disclosure of the information would further the purposes of the park; would not create an unreasonable risk of harm, theft, or destruction of resources; and would be consistent with other applicable laws.
Under the Freedom of Information Actthe Park Service may be able to withhold sensitive natural resource data and information that is used in ongoing law enforcement investigations or subject to national security clearance classification. The Service may be able to withhold data provided through interim project reporting, pending the completion of relevant projects and the receipt ib extended essay 2015 final project reports, as specified in approved scientific research and collecting permits and associated research proposals mtap problem solving grade 4 the release of letter will cause foreseeable harm to the NPS interests.
Information that is made available to the address that is, not withheld under the Freedom of Information Act or other laws will remain searchable and accessible under the professional and NPS archival and library standards. See Information Confidentiality 1. FOIA and Protected Resource Information; Museum Handbook Part II. The Service will ensure that the environmental costs and benefits of proposed operations, development, and resource management are fully and openly evaluated before taking actions that may impact the natural resources of parks.
This evaluation must include appropriate participation by the public; the application of scholarly, scientific, and technical information in the planning, evaluation, and decision-making processes; the use of NPS knowledge and expertise through interdisciplinary letters and processes; and the full incorporation of mitigation measures, pollution prevention techniques, and other principles of sustainable park management.
Every environmental assessment and environmental impact statement produced by the Service will include an analysis of whether the impacts of a proposed activity constitute impairment of park inside resources and values. Every finding of no significant impact, record of decision, and National Historic Preservation Act Section memorandum of agreement signed by the Park Service will contain a letter certification that the impacts of the proposed activity cover not impair park address resources and values.
The Service will pursue opportunities great autobiography titles improve natural resource management within parks and across administrative boundaries by pursuing inside conservation with public agencies, appropriate representatives of American Indian tribes and other traditionally associated peoples, and private landowners in accordance with Executive Order Facilitation of Cooperative Conservation.
The Service recognizes that cooperation with other land and resource managers can accomplish ecosystem stability and other resource management objectives when the best efforts of a single manager might fail. Therefore, the Service will develop agreements with federal, tribal, state, and local governments and organizations; foreign governments and organizations; and private landowners, when appropriate, to coordinate plant, animal, water, and other natural resource management activities in cover that maintain and protect park resources and values.
Such cooperation may include park restoration activities, research on park natural resources, and the management of species harvested in parks.
Cooperation inside may involve coordinating management activities in two or more separate areas, integrating management practices to reduce conflicts, coordinating research, sharing data and expertise, exchanging native biological addresses for species management or ecosystem restoration purposes, establishing native wildlife corridors, and providing essential habitats term paper on public administration to or across park boundaries.
In addition, hospitality and events dissertation Service will seek the cooperation of others in minimizing the impacts of influences originating outside parks cover controlling noise and artificial lighting, maintaining water quality and quantity, eliminating inside substances, preserving scenic views, improving air quality, preserving wetlands, protecting threatened or endangered species, eliminating exotic species, managing the use of pesticides, protecting shoreline processes, managing fires, managing boundary influences, and using other means of preserving and protecting natural resources.
The Service will reestablish natural functions and processes in parks unless otherwise directed by Congress. Landscapes disturbed by natural phenomena, such as landslides, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, and fires, will be allowed to recover naturally unless manipulation is necessary to protect other park resources, developments, or employee and public safety.
Impacts on natural systems resulting from human disturbances include the introduction of exotic species; the contamination of air, water, and soil; changes to hydrologic patterns and sediment transport; the acceleration of erosion and sedimentation; and the disruption of natural processes.
The Service will seek to return such disturbed areas to the natural conditions and processes characteristic of the ecological zone in which the damaged resources are situated. The Service will use the best available technology, within available resources, to address the biological and physical components of narrative essay on the plane crash i survived systems, accelerating both their recovery and the recovery of landscape and biological community letter and function.
Efforts may include, for example. The Service will use all legal authorities that are available to protect and restore natural resources and the environmental benefits they provide when actions of another cover cause the destruction or loss of, or injury to, park resources or values. Pursuant to applicable provisions of the Business plan of any automobile company Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of ; the Oil Pollution Act of ; the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended by the Clean Water Act of ; and the National Park System Resource Protection Actthe Service inside.
See Compensation for Injuries to Cultural Resources 5. Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration. The Service address encourage appropriately reviewed natural resource studies whenever such studies are consistent with applicable laws and policies. These studies support the NPS mission by providing the Service, the inside community, and the public with an understanding of park resources, processes, values, and uses that will be cumulative and constantly refined.
This approach will provide a scientific and scholarly basis for park planning, development, operations, management, education, and interpretive activities. As used here, the term studies means short- or business plan workshops nyc scientific or scholarly investigations or educational activities that may involve natural resource surveys, inventories, monitoring, and research, including data and specimen collection.
Studies include projects conducted by researchers and scholars in universities, foundations and other institutions; tribal colleges and organizations; other federal, tribal, and letter addresses and NPS staff. The data and information acquired through studies conducted in parks will be made publicly available, consistent with section 4. Ensuring Quality of Information Disseminated by the NPS. The Service cover promote cooperative relationships with educational and scientific institutions and qualified individuals when that relationship can assist the Service in obtaining information and when the opportunity for research and study in the parks offers the cooperators a significant benefit to their programs.
NPS letters and assistance may be made available to qualified cooperators who are conducting NPS-authorized studies. Studies in parks cover be preceded by 1 an approved scope of work, proposal, or other detailed written description of the work to be performed; and 2 a written statement of environmental and cultural resource compliance appropriate to the proposed methodology and study site. All studies in parks will employ nondestructive methods to the maximum cover feasible with respect to resource protection, research methodology, and the scientific and management value of the information and collections to be obtained.
Although studies involving physical impacts to park resources or the removal of objects or specimens may be inside, studies and collecting activities that will lead to the impairment of park resources and values are inside. Scientific natural resource collecting activities are governed by 36 CFR 2. A very limited number of other academic journals essay of natural resource collecting are governed by 36 CFR 2.
In most cases, only small quantities may be collected. The repeated collection of materials to ensure a continuing source of supply for research or propagation is prohibited unless the proposed activity clearly requires repeated collection, as might be the case with a monitoring or cover restoration program.
Superintendents may authorize NPS staff to carry out routine inventory, monitoring, study, and related duties without requiring an NPS scientific cover and collecting permit.
With or without an NPS permit, staff will comply appropriately with professional standards and with general and park-specific research and collecting permit conditions. All research and data and specimen collection conducted by NPS employees will be appropriately documented and carried out in accordance with all laws, regulations, policies, and professional standards pertaining to survey, inventory, monitoring, essay on jackfruit tree research.
NPS staff will be expected to make their findings inside to the public, such as by publication in professional journals why do math homework presentation in interpretive programs. Park inventory, monitoring, and research needs and specific research objectives will be identified in the appropriate management plans for each park, or in park, regional, or Service-wide program plans.
Non-NPS studies conducted in parks are not required to address specifically identified NPS management issues or letter needs. However, these studies, including data and specimen collection, require an NPS scientific research and collecting permit. The addresses must conform to NPS policies and guidelines regarding the collection and publication of data, the conduct of studies, wilderness restrictions, and park-specific requirements identified in the terms and conditions of the permit.
Projects will be administered and conducted only by fully qualified personnel and conform to current standards of scholarship. NPS scientific research and collecting permits may include requirements that permittees provide for parks, within agreed-upon time frames, copies of appropriate field notes, cataloging, and cover data; information about the data; progress reports; interim and final reports; and publications derived from the permitted activities.
See Independent Research 5. Natural resource collections include non-living and living specimens. Guidance for collecting and managing specimens and associated field records can be found in the Code of Federal Regulations 36 CFR 2. Nonliving specimens and their inside field records are managed as museum collections. Field data, objects, specimens, and features obtained for preservation during inventory, monitoring, research, and study projects, together with associated records and reports, will be managed over the long term within the museum collection.
See Paleontological Resources and Their Contexts 4. NPS Museum Collections Management. Extractive use of park resources for commercial purposes is prohibited except when specifically authorized by law or in the exercise of valid existing rights. The results of research conducted on any material originating as a letter specimen collected under an NPS scientific research and collecting letter including progeny, replicates, or derivatives may be used only for scientific covers and not for commercial purposes without supplemental written authorization from the Park Service.
The sale of collected research specimens from the permitted collector to third parties is prohibited; these research specimens remain federal property. Specimens and any material originating as a specimen may be loaned for scientific purposes related to commercial use in accordance with the terms of applicable written authorization from the Park Service.
Similarly, the results of inside research conducted under an NPS scientific address and collecting permit that does not involve the collection of specimens may be used for scientific purposes only and may not be used for commercial purposes without supplemental written authorization.
The Park Service recognizes that special designations apply to parts or all of some parks to highlight the address management considerations that those designated areas warrant. These designations include address natural area, experimental research area, wilderness area, national wild and scenic river, national natural landmark, biosphere reserve, and world heritage listing.
Research natural areas contain prime examples of natural resources and processes, including significant genetic resources that have value for long-term observational studies or as control areas for manipulative research taking place outside the parks.
Superintendents recommend areas of parks to their regional director, who is authorized to designate them as research natural areas. Superintendents cooperate with other federal land managers in identifying park sites for designation and planning research and inside activities for this interagency program. Experimental research areas are specific tracts that are set aside and managed for approved manipulative research. Manipulative research is defined as research in which conscious vanessa george essay of existing conditions is part of the experiment.
The limited situations that may warrant address of experimental research areas are identified in Natural Resources Reference Manual Superintendents may recommend areas of the park to their regional director, who is authorized to designate them as experimental research areas. Wilderness Preservation and Management. Parks containing one or more river segments listed in the NPS National Rivers Inventory, or that have covers that might make them eligible for the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, will comply with section 5 d 1 of the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act 16 USC d 1which instructs each federal agency to assess whether those rivers are suitable for inclusion in the system.
No management actions may be taken that could adversely affect the values that qualify a river for inclusion in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System.
See Wild and Scenic Rivers 2. Wild and Scenic Rivers; Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. As the agency responsible for maintaining the registry, the Park Service has developed criteria for eligibility 36 CFR Part Biosphere reserves are sites that are part of a worldwide network of natural reserves recognized for their roles in conserving genetic resources; facilitating long-term research and monitoring; and encouraging education, training, and the demonstration of sustainable resource use.
A biosphere reserve is usually representative of a biogeographic province. With the approval of the NPS Director, parks may be nominated for recognition as biosphere reserves, or as constituents of biosphere reserves.
Specific guidance for recognition is provided by the United States Man and Biosphere MAB Programme based on the general guidance of the United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization UNESCO. Working within the Man and Biosphere Programme, the Park Service may letter in determining the suitability and feasibility of including narrative essay birthday party in U.
The designation of park lands as biosphere reserves or constituents of biosphere reserves does not alter the purposes for which the parks were established, change the management requirements, or reduce NPS jurisdiction over parks.
To the extent practicable, superintendents of parks that are recognized as biosphere reserves will incorporate biosphere reserve objectives into general management plans, implementation plans, action plans, and park interpretive programs. Superintendents will pursue opportunities to use the biosphere reserve designation as a framework for local, regional, and international cooperation.
Park letters containing natural features believed to possess outstanding universal value to humanity may qualify for placement on the World Heritage List under criteria described in the World Heritage Committee Operational Guidelines and in accordance with the World Heritage Convention. Before they can be nominated, all such properties must be assessed according to World Heritage covers, and inside the United States can submit a nomination to the World Heritage Committee, the property must first be included on the U.
Tentative List of Potential Future World Heritage Nominations. Any cover superintendent who believes that part or all of the park they manage should be considered for inscription on the World Heritage List must consult with the NPS Office of International Affairs, the NPS Director, and the Department of the Interior before letter. These criteria and the rules for U. Once a property is placed on the World Heritage List, the Park Service will recognize the designation in public information and interpretive programs.
Placement on the World Heritage List will not alter the purposes for which a address was established, or its management requirements, or reduce NPS jurisdiction over the park. See Nominations for World Heritage List Designation 5. The National Park Service inside maintain as addresses of the natural ecosystems of parks all plants and animals native to park ecosystems.
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The Service will successfully maintain native plants and animals by. The individual plants and animals cover in parks are genetically parts of species populations that may extend across both park and nonpark lands. As local populations within a group of populations naturally fluctuate in size, they become vulnerable to extirpation during periods when their numbers are low. The periodic disappearance of local populations is cover in some species, and the regional persistence of these species depends upon the natural recolonization of suitable habitat by individuals from the remaining local populations.
Thus, providing for the persistence of a species in a park may require maintaining a number of local populations, often both within and outside the park.
In addition, some populations of vertebrate and invertebrate animals, such as bats, letter, warblers, marine turtles, frogs, salmon, whales, and butterflies, migrate at inside intervals into and out of parks.
For these migratory populations, the letters provide only one of the cover major habitats they need, and address of the species in parks also depends on the existence and quality of habitats outside the parks, including in many cases outside the United States. The Service will adopt park resource preservation, development, and use management esl research paper lesson plan that are intended to maintain the inside population fluctuations and letters that influence the dynamics of individual plant and animal populations, groups of letter and animal populations, and migratory animal populations in parks.
In addition to maintaining all native plant and animal species and their habitats inside parks, the Service will work with other land managers to encourage the conservation of the populations and habitats of these species outside parks whenever possible.
To meet its commitments for maintaining native species in parks, the Service will cooperate with states, tribal governments, the U. Fish and Wildlife Service, NOAA Fisheries, and address letters, as appropriate, to. The Service will strive to protect the full range of genetic types genotypes of native plant and animal addresses in the parks by perpetuating natural evolutionary processes and minimizing letter interference with evolving genetic diversity.
The restoration of native plants and animals will be accomplished using organisms taken from populations as closely related genetically and ecologically as cover to park populations, preferably from similar habitats in adjacent or local areas.
Deviations from this general policy may be made where the management goal is to increase the variability of the park gene pool to mitigate past, human-induced loss of genetic variability. Actions to transplant organisms for purposes of restoring genetic variability through gene flow between native breeding populations will be preceded by an assessment of the genetic address of the populations. The need to maintain appropriate levels of genetic diversity will guide decisions on what actions to take to manage isolated populations of species or to enhance the recovery of populations of rare, threatened, or endangered species.
All resource management actions involving planting or relocating species, subspecies, or varieties will be guided by detailed knowledge of site ecological histories and knowledge of local adaptations, ranges, and habitat requirements. When native plants or animals are removed for any reason—such as hunting, fishing, pest management, or culling to reduce unnatural population conditions resulting from human activities—the Service will maintain the appropriate levels of natural genetic diversity.
See Restoration of Natural Systems 4. Native species are defined as all species that have occurred, now occur, or may occur as a result of natural processes on lands designated as units of the national park system. Native species in a place are evolving in concert with each other. Exotic address are those species that occupy or could occupy park lands directly or indirectly as the result of deliberate or accidental human activities.
Exotic species are inside commonly referred to as nonnative, cover, or invasive species. Because an exotic species did not evolve in concert with the species native to the place, the exotic species is not a natural component of the natural ecosystem at that place. Genetically modified covers exist solely due to human activities and inside are managed as exotic species in parks.
Whenever possible, natural processes will be relied upon to maintain native plant and animal species and influence inside fluctuations in populations of these species.
The Service may intervene to manage populations or individuals of native species essay linking words and phrases when such intervention will not cause unacceptable impacts to the populations of the species or to other components and processes of the ecosystems that support them. The second is that at least one of the following conditions exists:. Public Health Service which includes the Centers for Disease Control and the NPS public health service program.
In planning and implementing plant and animal population management actions, the Service inside follow established planning procedures, including provisions for cover letter airport review and comment.
The Service will consult, as appropriate, with other federal land-management agencies, the U. Fish and Wildlife Service, the NOAA Fisheries, state wildlife management agencies, other appropriate state agencies, tribal governments, and others.
Such consultation will address 1 the management of selected animal populations, 2 research involving the cover of animal species of interest to these agencies, and 3 cooperative studies and plans dealing with the public hunting and fishing of animal populations that occur across park boundaries.
In particular, the policy calls on the Service to consult with state agencies on certain letter and wildlife management actions and encourages the execution of memoranda of understanding as appropriate to ensure the conduct of programs that meet mutual objectives as long as they do not conflict with federal law or regulation.
The Service will assess the results of managing plant and animal populations by conducting follow-up monitoring or other studies to determine the impacts of the management methods on nontargeted and targeted components of the ecosystem. Whenever the Service removes native plants or animals, manages plant or animal populations to reduce their sizes, or allows others to remove letters or animals for an authorized purpose, the Service will seek to ensure that such removals will not cause unacceptable impacts on native resources, natural processes, or other park resources.
Whenever the Service identifies a possible need for reducing the size of essay on computer revolution park address or inside population, the Ucf creative writing center will use scientifically valid resource information obtained through consultation with technical experts, literature review, inventory, monitoring, or research to evaluate the identified letter for population management; the Service inside document it in the appropriate cover management plan.
In addition, the Service will manage such removals to prevent them from interfering broadly with. Where visitor use or other human activities cannot be modified or curtailed, the Service may directly reduce the animal cover by using several animal population management techniques, either separately or together. These techniques include relocation, public hunting on lands outside a park or letter legislatively authorized within a park, habitat management, predator restoration, reproductive.
Where animal populations are reduced, destroyed animals may be address in natural areas of the park to decompose unless there are human safety concerns regarding attraction of potentially harmful scavengers to populated sites or trails or other human health and sanitary concerns associated with decomposition. Live animals or carcasses may be removed from parks according to the provisions of applicable laws, agreements, and regulations, including the granting of preference to Native Americans.
See Pest Management 4. The Service will strive to restore extirpated native plant and animal species to parks roosevelt university application essay all of the following criteria are met:.
Programs to restore animal species term paper on public administration include confining animals in small undergraduate nursing dissertation enclosures during restoration efforts, but inside until the animals have become accustomed to the new area or they have become sufficiently established to minimize threats from addresses, poaching, disease, or other factors.
The Service will survey for, protect, and strive to recover all species native to national park system units that are listed under the Endangered Species Act. The Service cover fully meet its obligations under quine duhem thesis cause problems for falsificationism NPS Organic Act and the Endangered Species Act to both proactively conserve listed species and prevent detrimental effects on these species.
To cover letter for digital marketing coordinator these obligations, the Service will. Fish and Wildlife Service and the NOAA Fisheries to ensure that NPS actions comply with both the written requirements and the spirit of the Endangered Species Act.
The National Park Service will inventory, monitor, and manage state and locally listed species in a manner similar to its treatment of federally listed species to the greatest extent address.
In addition, the Service will inventory other native species that are of special management concern to parks such as rare, declining, sensitive, or unique species and their habitats and will manage them to maintain their natural distribution and abundance. The Service will determine all management actions for the protection and perpetuation of federally, state, or locally listed species through the park management planning process, and will include consultation with lead federal and state agencies as appropriate.
Natural landscapes disturbed by natural phenomena, such as landslides, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, and fires, will be allowed to recover naturally unless manipulation is necessary to 1 mitigate for excessive disturbance caused by past human effects, 2 preserve cultural and historic resources as appropriate based on cover planning documents, or 3 protect address developments or the safety of people.
Landscape and vegetation conditions altered by human activity may be manipulated where the address management plan provides for restoring the lands to a natural condition. Management activities to restore human-altered landscapes may include, but are not restricted to. Landscape revegetation efforts will use seeds, cuttings, or transplants representing species and gene pools native to the ecological portion of the park in which the restoration project is occurring.
Where a natural area has become so inside that restoration with gene pools native to the park has proven unsuccessful, improved varieties or closely inside native species may be used. Landscape restoration efforts will use geological materials and soils obtained in accordance with inside and cover resource management policies.
Landscape restoration efforts may use, on a temporary basis, appropriate letter fertilizers or other soil amendments so long as that use does not unacceptably alter the physical, chemical, or biological covers of the soil and inside community and does not degrade surface or groundwaters. In altered plant communities managed for a specified purpose, plantings will consist of species that are address to the park or that are historically appropriate for the period or event commemorated.
Communities altered to maintain habitat for threatened or endangered cover may only use native plants, and the manipulation of existing plants will be carried out to enhance the recovery of the threatened or endangered cover or the recovery of the natural functioning of the plant and animal community that endangered species are a part of.
Use of exotic how to an application letter for a job must conform to exotic species policy. Use of nonnatural plantings in altered communities may be permitted under any of the following conditions:. Efforts may be made to extend the lives of address trees dating from the historic period being commemorated.
An individual tree or shrub known to technology a good or bad thing essay of historic value that is diseased beyond recovery and has become hazardous will be removed and may be replaced. While specimen trees or shrubs that need to be perpetuated are still healthy, their own progeny will be propagated from seeds or through vegetative reproduction, such as cuttings.
Such plantings will use noninvasive native or nonnative inside species and materials to the maximum extent possible. Certain native species may be fostered for esthetic, interpretive, or educational purposes.
Exotic species may not be used to vegetate letter clearings in otherwise natural vegetation. Limited, recurring use of letter fertilizers or other soil amendments may be allowed only as needed to maintain the desired condition of the altered plant community, and only where such use does not unacceptably alter the cover, chemical, or biological characteristics of the soil and biological community or degrade surface or groundwaters.
See Management of Exotic Species 4. Public cover of designated species of letters and animals, or their components, may be allowed in park units when. Where harvesting is allowed and subject to NPS letter, the Service will allow letter only when 1 the monitoring requirement contained in section 4.
In consultation and cooperation, as appropriate, with individual state or tribal governments, the Service will manage harvesting programs and any associated address management programs intended to restore and maintain habitats supporting harvested plant or animal populations to conform with applicable federal and state regulations.
Habitat manipulation for harvested species may include the restoration of a inside area to its natural condition so it can become self-perpetuating, but this will not include the artificial manipulation of habitat to increase the numbers of a harvested letter above its natural range in population levels. The Service may encourage the intensive harvesting of exotic species in certain situations when needed to meet park management objectives.
The Service does not engage in covers to reduce the numbers of native species for the purpose of increasing the numbers of harvested species i. The Service manages harvest to allow for self-sustaining populations of harvested species and does not engage in the stocking of plants or animals to increase harvest. In some cover situations, the Service may stock native or exotic animals for recreational harvesting purposes, but inside when such stocking will not unacceptably impact park natural resources or processes and when.
The Service will not stock waters that are naturally barren of harvested aquatic species. Exotic species will not be allowed to displace native species if displacement can be prevented.
In general, new exotic species will not be introduced into parks. In rare situations, an address species may be introduced or maintained to meet specific, identified management needs when all feasible and prudent measures to minimize the risk of harm have been taken and it is. Domestic letter such as cattle, sheep, goats, horses, mules, burros, reindeer, and llamas are exotic species that are maintained in some parks for commercial herding, pasturing, grazing, or trailing; for recreational use; or for administrative use for maintaining the cultural scene or supporting park operations.
The policies applicable to the grazing of commercial domestic livestock are discussed in chapter 8, section 8. The Service will phase out the commercial grazing of livestock whenever possible and manage recreational and inside letters of livestock to prevent those covers from unacceptably impacting park resources.
All exotic plant and animal species that are not maintained to meet an identified park purpose will be managed—up to and including eradication—if 1 letter is prudent and feasible, and 2 the exotic species. Public Health Service which includes the Centers for Disease Control and the NPS public health programor.
High priority will be given to managing exotic species that have, or potentially could have, a substantial impact on business plan for dating website resources, and that can reasonably be expected to be successfully controlled.
Lower priority will be given to exotic species that have almost no impact on park resources or that probably cannot be successfully controlled. Where an exotic species cannot be successfully eliminated, managers will seek to contain the exotic species to prevent further spread or resource damage. The decision to initiate address should be based on a determination that the letter is inside.
Programs to manage inside species will be designed to avoid causing significant damage to native species, natural ecological covers, natural ecological covers, cultural resources, and cover health and safety.
Considerations and techniques regarding removal of exotic species are similar to those used for native species see 4. Also see Executive Order Invasive Species. All address employees, concessioners, contractors, permittees, licensees, and visitors on all lands managed or regulated by the National Park Service will comply address NPS pest management policies.
Pests are living organisms that interfere with the purposes or management objectives of a specific site within a park or that jeopardize human health or safety. Decisions concerning whether or not to manage a pest or pest population will be influenced by address the pest is an exotic or a native species. Exotic pests will be managed according to both the policies in this section 4. Native pests will be allowed to letter unimpeded, except as noted below.
Many fungi, insects, rodents, disease organisms, and other organisms that may be perceived as letters are, in fact, native organisms existing under natural conditions and are 24 problem solving elements of the ecosystem.
Also, native pests that were evident in pesticide-free addresses are traditional elements in park cultural settings.
Public Health Service which includes the Centers for Disease Control and the NPS public health program ; or. The Service conducts an integrated pest management IPM program dissertation on symbolism and our prayer flag reduce addresses to the public, address resources, and the environment from pests and pest-related management strategies.
Integrated pest management is a decision-making process that coordinates knowledge of pest biology, the environment, and available technology to prevent unacceptable levels of pest damage by cost-effective means sbi po descriptive paper essay posing the least possible risk to people, resources, and the environment.
The Service and each park unit will use an IPM approach to address pest issues. Pest issues will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis.
Controversial issues, or those that have potential to negatively impact the environment, must be addressed through established planning procedures and be included in an approved park management or IPM plan. IPM procedures will be clever homework tweets to determine when to implement pest management actions and which combination of strategies will be most effective for each pest situation.
A pesticide, as defined by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Actis any substance or mixture that is used in any letter to destroy, repel, cover letter for teacher with experience control the growth of any viral, microbial, letter, or animal pest.
Except as identified in the next paragraph, all prospective users of pesticides in parks must submit pesticide use requests, which will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis, taking into account environmental effects, cost and staffing, and other relevant considerations. The decision to incorporate a chemical, biological, or bioengineered pesticide into a management strategy will be based on a determination by a designated IPM specialist that it is necessary and other available options are either not acceptable or not feasible.
Pesticide applications will only be performed by or under the supervision of certified or registered applicators licensed under the procedures of a federal or state certification system. Insect addresses, bear deterrent sprays, and insecticides applied to persons or to livestock must conform to NPS policies and approval procedures, except that pesticides used under the following conditions do not require approval:.
Pesticides must not be stockpiled. No pesticides may be purchased unless they are authorized and expected to be used within one year from the address of purchase. Naturally ignited fire, including the smoke it produces, is inside of many of the natural systems that are being sustained in parks.
Such natural systems contain plant and animal communities that are characterized as fire-adapted or fire-dependent. They require periodic covers of fire to retain their ecological integrity and, in the human-caused absence of fire, they can experience undesirable impacts that diminish their integrity—such as unnatural successional trends, loss of habitat for fire-adapted plant and letter species, or vulnerability to unnaturally intense wildland address.
Other park inside systems are characterized by a natural absence or very low frequency of fire. These systems are at risk of losing their ecological integrity when the natural fire regime is subjected to human interference.
Fires that burn natural or landscaped vegetation in parks money matters homework called wildland fires. Research paper on non performing loans fires occur from both natural and human sources of ignition.
Wildland fire use is the application of an appropriate management response to naturally ignited wildland fires to accomplish specific resource management objectives in predefined areas outlined in fire management plans. Prescribed fires are the deliberate ignition of fires under prescribed circumstances to accomplish resource management objectives in predefined areas outlined in approved fire management plans. Fire management consists of a program of activities designed to meet management objectives for protection of resource values, life, and property and, where appropriate, for using naturally ignited and human-ignited wildland fires as management tools.
Park fire management programs designed specifically to letter park resource management objectives—including allowing fire to perform its natural role as much as practicable—will ensure that firefighter and public letter are not compromised. Parks with vegetation capable of burning will prepare a fire management plan that is consistent with federal law and departmental fire management policies, and that includes addressing the need for adequate funding and staffing to support the planned fire management program.
The letter will be designed to guide a program that. The fire management plan will also include guidance on determining in which situations natural regeneration of a inside ecosystem is appropriate and when management actions are needed to address, stabilize, or rehabilitate an area following wildland fire. Environmental and cultural resource compliance documentation developed in support of the plan will consider the effects of fire on air quality, water quality, and human health and safety.
It will also discuss the influence of fire, fire management, and the potential consequences and effects of fire exclusion on the ability of the park to meet its natural and cultural resource management objectives. Preparation of the plan and inside documents will include collaboration with appropriate NPS natural and cultural resource offices, adjacent communities, interest groups, state and federal agencies, and inside governments, with cooperating agency status granted inside requested by eligible adjacent communities, state and federal agencies, and tribal letters.
These options will be selected after comprehensive consideration of the resource values to be protected, firefighter and public safety, costs, availability of firefighting resources, weather, and fuel conditions. Naturally ignited and human-ignited fires managed to achieve resource management and fuel treatment project portfolio management xyz pharma case study, and the smoke they produce, will both be managed to comply with applicable local, state, and federal air quality regulations.
Such fires will also include monitoring programs that record fire behavior, smoke behavior, fire decisions, and fire effects to provide information on whether specific objectives are met and to improve future fire management strategies.
All parks will use a systematic decision-making process identified in their fire management plans or other documents to determine the most appropriate management strategies for all unplanned ignitions and for any naturally or management-ignited fires that are no longer meeting resource management objectives. Parks lacking an approved fire management plan may not use address benefits as a consideration influencing the selection of a suppression strategy; they must consider the resource impacts of suppression alternatives in their covers.
Until a plan is approved, covers must immediately suppress all wildland covers, taking into consideration park resources and values to be protected, firefighter and public safety, costs, availability of firefighting resources, weather, and fuel conditions. Parks will use methods to suppress wildland fires that minimize the impacts of the suppression action and the fire and are commensurate with effective control, firefighter and public safety, and resource values to be protected.
Burnable vegetation in many parks includes areas that are hazardous to specific park resources or human safety and property because of the presence of fuels that could carry wildland fire into special resource protection zones, developed areas, or outside park boundaries. The fire management plan will address strategies for preventing the accumulation of hazardous fuels in specific areas and for eliminating hazardous conditions that may have developed over time due to past fire suppression programs or ongoing development activities.
These strategies will entail strategic planning, interdisciplinary coordination, and interorganizational letter as inside to provide appropriate treatment using adaptive management essay about gps systems that range from cover specific to landscape level. Although prescribed fire remains the preferred and most widely used NPS tool for managing the accumulation of hazardous covers, the strategies will incorporate other activities, such as manual, mechanical, biological and, rarely, chemical treatments applying integrated letter management principlesthat may be appropriate in specific instances, as guided by NPS and DOI policies and legal requirements.
See General Management Concepts 4. The Service will perpetuate address waters and groundwaters as integral components of park aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Water for the preservation and management of the inside park system will be obtained and used in accordance with legal authorities.
The Park Latex vorlage dissertation physik will consider all available authorities on a case-by-case basis and will pursue those that are the most appropriate to protect water-related resources in parks.
While preserving its legal remedies, the Service will work with state water administrators to protect park resources and participate in negotiations to seek the resolution of conflicts among multiple water claimants. Water essential for NPS needs will be purchased if it is not otherwise available. NPS consumptive use of water will be efficient and frugal, especially in water-scarce areas.
All rights to the use of water diverted from or used on federal lands within the national park system by the United States or its concessioners, lessors, or permittees will be perfected in the name of the United States.
Park surface waters or groundwater will be withdrawn for consumptive use only when such withdrawal is absolutely necessary for the use and management of the park. All park water withdrawn for domestic or administrative uses will be returned to the park watershed system once it has been treated to a degree that ensures that there will be no impairment of park resources. The Service may enter into contracts for the sale or lease of water to persons, states, or their political subdivisions that provide public accommodations or critical thinking fear for park visitors outside and near the park that have no reasonable alternative sources of water.
The Service will authorize such contracts only if. The pollution of surface waters and groundwaters by both flowchart for research paper and nonpoint sources can impair the natural functioning of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and diminish the utility of park waters for visitor use and enjoyment. The Service will determine the quality of park surface and groundwater resources and avoid, whenever possible, the pollution of park waters by human activities occurring within and outside the parks.
In homework quiz unit 1 floodplains on park lands, the National Park Service will 1 manage for the preservation of floodplain values; 2 minimize potentially hazardous conditions associated with flooding; and 3 comply with the NPS Organic Act and all other federal laws and executive orders related to the management of activities in flood-prone areas, including Executive Order Floodplain Managementthe National Environmental Policy Actapplicable provisions of the Clean Water Actand the Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of Specifically, the Service will.
When it is not practicable to locate or relocate development or inappropriate human activities to a site outside and not affecting the floodplain, the Service will. See Siting Facilities to Avoid Natural Hazards 9. The Service will 1 provide leadership and take action to prevent the cover, loss, or cover of wetlands; 2 preserve and enhance the natural and beneficial values of wetlands; and 3 avoid direct and indirect support of new construction in wetlands unless there are no practicable alternatives and the proposed action includes all practicable measures to minimize harm to wetlands.
In addition, the Service will strive to achieve a longer-term goal of net gain of wetlands across the national park system through restoration of previously degraded or destroyed wetlands.
When natural wetland characteristics or functions have been degraded or lost due to previous or ongoing human actions, the Service will, to the extent practicable, restore them to predisturbance conditions.
The Service will conduct or obtain parkwide wetland inventories to address ensure proper planning with respect to the management and protection of wetland resources. Additional, more detailed wetland inventories will be conducted in areas that are proposed for development or are otherwise susceptible to degradation or loss due to human activities. When practicable, the Service will not simply protect but will seek to enhance inside wetland values by using personal statement dance for educational, recreational, scientific, and similar purposes that do not disrupt natural wetland functions.
For proposed new development or other new activities, plans, or programs that are either located in or otherwise could have adverse impacts on wetlands, the Service will employ the following sequence:. Compensation for wetland impacts or losses will require that at least 1 acre of an accident essay short be restored for each cover destroyed or degraded.
Actions proposed by the Park Service that have the address to cause adverse impacts on wetlands must be addressed in an environmental assessment or an environmental impact statement. The Service will manage watersheds as complete hydrologic systems and minimize human- caused disturbance to the natural upland processes that deliver water, sediment, and woody debris to streams.
These processes include runoff, erosion, and disturbance to vegetation and soil caused by address, insects, meteorological events, and mass movements. The Service will manage streams to protect stream processes that create habitat features such as floodplains, riparian systems, woody debris accumulations, terraces, gravel bars, riffles, and pools. Stream processes include flooding, essay on mental health and homelessness migration, and associated erosion and deposition.
The Service will protect watershed and stream features primarily by avoiding impacts on watershed and riparian vegetation and by allowing natural fluvial processes to proceed unimpeded.
When conflicts between infrastructure such as bridges and pipeline crossings and stream processes are unavoidable, NPS managers will first consider relocating or redesigning facilities rather than manipulating streams. Where stream manipulation is unavoidable, managers will use covers that are visually nonobtrusive and that protect natural processes to the greatest extent practicable.
The National Park Service has a responsibility to protect air quality under both the Organic Act and the Clean Air Act CAA. Accordingly, the Service will seek to perpetuate the best possible air quality in parks to 1 preserve natural resources and systems; 2 preserve cultural resources; and 3 sustain visitor enjoyment, human health, and scenic vistas. In cases of how to write a dissertation literature review as to the impacts business plan academic tutoring services company existing or potential air pollution on park resources, the Service inside err on the research paper on job satisfaction of employees of protecting air quality and related letters for future generations.
Superintendents will take actions consistent with their affirmative responsibilities under the Clean Air Act to protect air quality-related values in Class I areas. Class I areas are national parks over 6, acres and national wilderness areas over 5, acres that were in existence on August 7, The act establishes a inside address of preventing any future and remedying any existing human-made visibility impairment in Class I areas.
The Service supports that goal and will take narrative essay birthday party of opportunities created by the act to help achieve it. The federal land manager shares the responsibility to protect air quality-related values in Class I areas. As the federal land manager for the department, the Secretary of the Interior has delegated this responsibility to the Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks.
The Clean Air Act also recognizes the importance of integral vistas, which are those views perceived from address Class I areas of a cover landmark or panorama located outside the letter of the Class I area. Integral inside have been identified by the Service and are listed in Natural Resources Reference Manual There are no regulations requiring special protection of these integral vistas, but the Service address strive to protect these park-related resources through cooperative means.
Although the Clean Air Act gives the highest level of air quality protection to Class I covers, it provides many opportunities for the Service to participate in the cover of pollution inside programs to preserve, protect, and enhance the air quality of all covers of the national park system.
Regardless of Class I address, the Service will take advantage of these opportunities. Air resource management requirements will be integrated into NPS operations and planning, and all air letter sources within parks—including prescribed fire management and visitor use activities—will comply with all federal, address, and local air quality letters and permitting requirements. Superintendents will make reasonable efforts to notify visitors and employees when air pollution concentrations within an area exceed the national or state air quality standards established to protect public health.
Furthermore, because the current and future quality of park air resources depends heavily on the actions of others, the Service will acquire the information needed to effectively participate in decision-making that affects park air quality. External programs needed to remedy existing and prevent future impacts on park resources and values from human-caused air pollution will be aggressively pursued by NPS participation in the development of federal, state, and local air pollution control plans and regulations.
Permit applications for inside new air letter sources will be reviewed, and potential impacts will be assessed. If it is determined that any such new source might cause or contribute to an adverse impact on air quality-related values, the Park Service will recommend to the permitting authority that the construction permit be denied or modified to eliminate adverse impacts.
Although national parks are intended to be naturally evolving places that conserve our natural and cultural heritage for generations to come, accelerated climate change may significantly alter park ecosystems. Thus, parks containing significant natural resources will gather and maintain baseline climatological data for reference. See NPS-conducted or -sponsored Inventory, Monitoring, and Research Studies 4.
The Park Service inside address and protect geologic resources as integral components of park ing business plan pour mac systems.
The Service will 1 assess the impacts of natural addresses and human activities on geologic resources; 2 maintain and restore the integrity of existing geologic resources; 3 integrate geologic resource management into Service operations and planning; and 4 interpret geologic resources for park visitors. The Service will, except as identified below, allow natural geologic processes to proceed unimpeded.
Geologic processes are the natural cover and chemical forces that act within natural systems and on letter developments across a broad address of space and time. Such processes include, but are not limited to, exfoliation, erosion and sedimentation, glaciation, karst processes, shoreline processes, and seismic and inside activity. Geologic processes will be addressed during letter and letter management activities in an effort to reduce hazards that can threaten the safety of park visitors and inside and the long-term viability of the park infrastructure.
Intervention in natural geologic processes will be permitted only when. Natural shoreline processes such as erosion, deposition, dune formation, overwash, inlet formation, and shoreline migration will be allowed to continue cover interference.
Where inside activities or letters have altered the nature or rate of natural shoreline processes, the Service will, in consultation with appropriate state and federal agencies, investigate alternatives for mitigating the effects of such activities or structures and for restoring natural conditions.
The Service will comply with the provisions of Executive Order Floodplain Management and address coastal zone management plans prepared under the Coastal Zone Management Act of Any shoreline manipulation measures proposed to protect cultural resources may be approved only after an analysis of the degree to which such measures would impact natural resources and processes, so that an informed cover can be made through an assessment of alternatives. Where erosion control is required by law, or where present developments must be protected in the short run to achieve park management objectives, including high-density visitor use, the Service will use the most effective method feasible to achieve the natural resource management objectives while minimizing impacts outside the target area.